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AICR Food Facts  >  Foods That Fight Cancer

Raspberries: Rich in Fiber and Ellagitannin Compounds

This content was last updated on April 8, 2021

The Cancer Research

Raspberries offer distinct benefits to a healthful diet focused on reducing cancer risk.

Their unique combination of high dietary fiber and ellagitannin compounds play an important role in potential to reduce cancer risk. Individual differences in genes and gut microbiota may influence the anti-cancer activity of this berry.

Interpreting the data

After a systematic review of the global scientific literature, AICR/WCRF analyzed how foods and their nutrients affect the risk of developing cancer.

“Convincing” or “probable” evidence means there is strong research showing a causal relationship to cancer—either decreasing or increasing the risk. The research must include quality human studies that meet specific criteria and biological explanations for the findings.

A convincing or probable judgement is strong enough to justify recommendations.

  • There is probable evidence that foods with dietary fiber DECREASE the risk of:
    • Colorectal cancer
    • Weight gain, overweight and obesity*

*This is important, because there is strong evidence that excess body fat increases the risk of at least 12 different cancers.

  • There is probable evidence that non-starchy vegetables and fruit combined DECREASE the risk of:
    • Aerodigestive cancers overall (such as mouth, pharynx and larynx; esophageal; lung; stomach and colorectal cancers)

“Limited suggestive” evidence means results are generally consistent in overall conclusions, but it’s rarely strong enough to justify recommendations to reduce risk of cancer.

  • Limited evidence suggests that fruit may DECREASE the risk of:
    • Lung cancer (in people who smoke or used to smoke tobacco) and squamous cell esophageal cancer
  • Limited evidence suggests that non-starchy vegetables and fruit combined may DECREASE the risk of:
  • Bladder cancer
  • Limited evidence suggests that foods containing vitamin C may DECREASE the risk of:
    • Lung cancer (in people who smoke) and colon cancer
Source: AICR/WCRF. Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Cancer: A Global Perspective, 2018.

Ongoing Areas of Investigation

  • Laboratory Research

    Anthocyanins influence cell signaling in ways that increase antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and carcinogen-deactivating enzymes in cell and animal studies. They inhibit cancer cells’ growth and ability to spread and activate signaling that leads to the self-destruction of abnormal cells.

    Phenolic acids increase cells’ antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses against damage that could lead to cancer in cell and animal studies. Emerging evidence in animal studies suggests they may also improve glucose metabolism and decrease insulin resistance, and alter the gut microbiota (microbes living in the colon), creating an environment in the body less likely to support cancer.

    Tannins such as ellagitannins and proanthocyanidins are complex compounds that are mostly unabsorbed. Microbes in the gut break them down to form other phytochemicals.

    • Ellagitannins are broken down in the digestive system to ellagic acid and then to urolithins that can be absorbed into the body. In cell and animal studies, ellagic acid and the urolithins that form from it increase antioxidant enzymes, decreasing free radical damage to DNA that can lead to cancer. By influencing gene expression, they decrease growth and stimulate the self-destruction of several types of cancer cells.
    • In some cell studies, urolithins inhibit the aromatase enzyme that produces estrogen and inhibits the growth of estrogen-responsive breast cancer cells.
    • Animal studies show decreased inflammation in the colon with ellagitannins and the compounds that form from them at levels that could be reached by people eating a healthful diet.

    In limited animal studies, raspberries increase antioxidant enzyme activity, decrease oxidative stress, and reduce inflammation and tumor incidence in the colon.

    Laboratory studies need to be interpreted with caution. Cell studies often use phytochemical compounds as found in berries, but these are broken down into other compounds that circulate through the body. And laboratory studies may use phytochemicals in concentrations far beyond levels that would circulate in the body.

  • Human Studies

    Human studies related to raspberries and cancer risk compare groups of people who consume relatively high and low amounts of total fruit, dietary fiber, berries, or raspberries specifically.

    People who eat more fruits have a lower risk of a wide range of cancers. This probably reflects combined protection from many different nutrients and compounds they contain.

    Dietary Fiber: Observational population studies link high dietary fiber consumption with reduced risk of colorectal cancer. One meta-analysis of 16 prospective studies also link dietary fiber with a lower risk of breast cancer. However,  analysis for the AICR/WCRF Third Expert Report considered the potential for an association of dietary fiber and this and several other cancers and found the evidence too limited to support a conclusion.

    Vitamin C: Population studies comparing people with higher and lower levels of vitamin C in their diets, and especially levels circulating in their blood, link higher amounts with lower overall risk of cancer. This effect is larger when comparing people with very low levels to moderately increased levels than comparing people with moderate and much higher levels. Higher levels of vitamin C from foods are linked with a lower risk of lung cancer among people who smoke tobacco, although not in those who used to smoke or who have never smoked. People with more vitamin C in their diet are also less likely to develop colon cancer. That’s even after adjusting for other risk factors for colon cancer, such as alcohol, red meat and tobacco. Evidence for both lung and colon cancer is rated as Limited Suggestive in the AICR/WCRF Third Expert Report, and more research is needed. Ellagitannins and urolithins: Bacteria in the colon convert ellagitannins from raspberries and other berries to ellagic acid and then to urolithins that can be absorbed. People differ dramatically in the amount and types of urolithins they produce from ellagic acid, which could cause differences in the benefits people get from these foods.

    Flavonoids found in raspberries: Higher levels of anthocyanins in the diet were strongly associated with lower levels of markers of inflammation, and flavonols and flavan-3-ols were linked with lower levels of oxidative stress in a cross-sectional analysis of a large population study. But human studies are limited and do not consistently show the benefits seen in animal and cell studies, so more research is needed.

  • Tips for Selection, Storage and Preparation
    Selection:
    • Moisture increases spoilage, so select raspberries and blackberries that are dry, in an unstained container, with no signs of mold.
    • Frozen berries are a good choice, too, if they’re unsweetened.
    Storage:
    • Refrigerate fresh berries in an uncovered container. Try to use raspberries within two days.
    • Discard any moldy berries so they don’t contaminate the rest.
    • Berries last longer if you wait to wash them until just before eating them.
    • Freeze your own berries in season when least expensive. Freeze dry berries on a cookie sheet in a single layer. Once frozen, they’ll keep in a freezer bag for up to a year.
    Preparation Ideas:
    • Raspberries are delicate, so handle them carefully. To clean the berries, rinse gently just before serving and use as little water as possible. Place on paper towels to dry.
    • Add fresh or unthawed frozen berries to muffins.
    • Whirl raspberries alone or with other fruits into a smoothie.
    • Raspberries are delicious in fruit salad or spinach salad.
    • Make berries into a sauce to top cake, frozen yogurt or other fruit. (Some cooks strain out the seeds, but that removes most of the ellagitannins.)

References

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  2. de Sousa Moraes LF, Sun X, Peluzio MdCG, Zhu M-J. Anthocyanins/anthocyanidins and colorectal cancer: What is behind the scenes? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2019;59(1):59-71.
  3. Del Rio D, Rodriguez-Mateos A, Spencer JP, Tognolini M, Borges G, Crozier A. Dietary (poly)phenolics in human health: structures, bioavailability, and evidence of protective effects against chronic diseases. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013;18(14):1818-1892.
  4. Tajik N, Tajik M, Mack I, Enck P. The potential effects of chlorogenic acid, the main phenolic components in coffee, on health: a comprehensive review of the literature. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(7):2215-2244.
  5. Villa-Rodriguez JA, Ifie I, Gonzalez-Aguilar GA, Roopchand DE. The Gastrointestinal Tract as Prime Site for Cardiometabolic Protection by Dietary Polyphenols. Advances in Nutrition. 2019;10(6):999-1011.
  6. Ismail T, Calcabrini C, Diaz AR, et al. Ellagitannins in Cancer Chemoprevention and Therapy. Toxins. 2016;8(5):151.
  7. Montgomery M, Srinivasan A. Epigenetic Gene Regulation by Dietary Compounds in Cancer Prevention. Advances in Nutrition. 2019;10(6):1012-1028.
  8. Stoner GD, Wang LS, Seguin C, et al. Multiple berry types prevent N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced esophageal cancer in rats. Pharm Res. 2010;27(6):1138-1145.
  9. Kang I, Buckner T, Shay NF, Gu L, Chung S. Improvements in Metabolic Health with Consumption of Ellagic Acid and Subsequent Conversion into Urolithins: Evidence and Mechanisms. Advances in Nutrition. 2016;7(5):961-972.
  10. Afrin S, Giampieri F, Gasparrini M, et al. Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Effects of Edible Berries: A Focus on Colon Cancer Prevention and Treatment. Molecules. 2016;21(2):169.
  11. Burton-Freeman BM, Sandhu AK, Edirisinghe I. Red Raspberries and Their Bioactive Polyphenols: Cardiometabolic and Neuronal Health Links. Advances in Nutrition. 2016;7(1):44-65.
  12. World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Continuous Update Project Expert Report 2018. Wholegrains, vegetables and fruit and the risk of cancer. Available at: dietandcancerreport.org.
  13. Aune D. Plant Foods, Antioxidant Biomarkers, and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and Mortality: A Review of the Evidence. Advances in Nutrition. 2019;10(Supplement_4):S404-S421.
  14. Ma Y, Hu M, Zhou L, et al. Dietary fiber intake and risks of proximal and distal colon cancers: A meta-analysis. Medicine. 2018;97(36):e11678.
  15. World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Continuous Update Project Expert Report 2018. Diet, nutrition, physical activity and colorectal cancer. Available at: dietandcancerreport.org.
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  17. Aune D, Keum N, Giovannucci E, et al. Dietary intake and blood concentrations of antioxidants and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018;108(5):1069-1091.
  18. Cassidy A, Rogers G, Peterson JJ, Dwyer JT, Lin H, Jacques PF. Higher dietary anthocyanin and flavonol intakes are associated with anti-inflammatory effects in a population of US adults1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(1):172-181.
  19. Prior RL, Gu L, Wu X, et al. Plasma antioxidant capacity changes following a meal as a measure of the ability of a food to alter in vivo antioxidant status. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26(2):170-181.
  20. Johnson SA, Arjmandi BH. Evidence for Anti-Cancer Properties of Blueberries: A Mini-Review. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry- Anti-Cancer Agents). 2013;13(8):1142-1148.
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