TNF? and IL-1? play an active role in the cancer process by suppressing appetite, inducing sleepiness, fever, pain, and breaking down fat and muscle tissue in cancer patients. Curcumin, a component of curry and an antioxidant, reduces the production of TNF? and IL-1? in a leukemia cell line. Dr. Chan studied a variety of spices and herbs to see if they would inhibit TNF? and IL-1? and studied the mechanisms by which this occurs in a mouse model.