How Our Research Is Used

The American Institute for Cancer Research is committed to funding research that is useful to future research and application that can make a consequential impact. Below is a selection of journal articles featuring current and past AICR grantees.

Combinatorial bioactive botanicals re-sensitize tamoxifen treatment in ER-negative breast cancer via epigenetic reactivation of ERα expression
Dr. Tollefsbol and his colleagues looked at the effects of EGCG, a botanical commonly found in green tea, on the efficacy of hormone therapy in patients with breast cancer.

Obesity promotes resistance to anti-VEGF therapy in breast cancer by up-regulating IL-6 and potentially FGF-2
This team of researchers, including AICR grantee Jennifer Ligibel, examined whether obesity can alter the response of breast cancer patients to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, which blocks the growth of new blood vessels. Their study concluded that obesity generally led to a decrease in efficacy of this type of therapy for breast cancer patients.

Investigating the Ketogenic Diet As Treatment for Primary Aggressive Brain Cancer: Challenges and Lessons Learned
This article describes a clinical trial assessing the efficacy of using the ketogenic diet to treat glioblastoma multiforme, a malignant tumor affecting the brain or spine. Ten patients with this type of cancer used a ketogenic diet in combination with standard treatments to assess whether or not this diet can play a role in survival.

Marine ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and fish intake after colon cancer diagnosis and survival: CALGB 89803 (Alliance)
A fatty acid commonly found in dark fish may help to prevent the progression of colorectal cancer. This study, in which AICR grantee Edward Giovannucci participated, provides insights into the potential of diet in reducing the risk of recurrence or progression in colorectal cancer survivors.

Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and risk of lung cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study
This study used AICR/WCRF recommendations for cancer prevention to create a scoring system from 0 to 5, with a higher score indicating greater adherence to our recommendations for the prevention of cancer. Participants adhering to our recommendations showed a slight but statistically nonsignificant decrease in lung cancer risk.

Carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies
By using our Continuous Update Project, these researchers were able to investigate whether a dose-response association exists amongst carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load and risk of breast cancer, when stratified by menopausal status, hormone receptor status, and body mass index. They found that menopausal and hormone receptor status may be a potential influencing factor in carb intake, glycemic index and glycemic load on the development of breast cancer.

Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and colorectal cancer risk
These researchers evaluated the role of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations for preventing cancer on colorectal cancer risk. It was found that higher adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated to a 30% reduced risk for colorectal cancer.

An update of the WCRF/AICR systematic literature review and meta-analysis on dietary and anthropometric factors and esophageal cancer risk
This study, which was a part of our Continuous Update Project, sought to update the scientific evidence surrounding esophageal cancer. The results suggested a protective role of vegetables and body weight control in esophageal adenocarcinoma development.

Physical activity and breast cancer risk by pathological subtype
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of physical activity on breast cancer risk and see if adherence to AICR guidelines for physical fitness impacted this risk. For all subtypes of breast cancer, risk was significantly decreased by meeting physical activity recommendations.

Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and head and neck cancers risk
Researchers validated WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention in the prevention of head and neck cancer. Overall, higher adherence was associated with reduced risk for these cancers.

Associations between adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research cancer prevention recommendations and biomarkers of inflammation, hormonal and insulin response
In this study, researchers sought to understand the underlying biological mechanisms of cancer, such as inflammation, hormonal and insulin response, and their variations on following AICR recommendations for cancer prevention. Overall, the study found a significant lowering of biomarker concentrations among participants who followed energy balance recommendations.

Association between meeting the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and colorectal cancer incidence: Results from the VITAL cohort
Hastert and White examined the effect of following AICR recommendations on colorectal cancer incidence. Meeting 1 to 3 of the AICR recommendations was associated with a 34-45% lower colorectal cancer incidence, while meeting 4 to 5 of the recommendations reduced incidence by more than half (58%).

Maternal diet during pregnancy and micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood T lymphocytes in mothers and newborns (Rhea cohort, Crete)
The purpose of this study was to assess whether adherence to AICR’s cancer prevention guidelines during pregnancy decreased the frequency of a biomarker in both mother and the newborn. The particular biomarker is associated with early genetic effects that have been associated with cancer risk in adults. Results showed that red meat consumption increased the frequency of the biomarker in mothers, but not in newborns.